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Public Facilities:
Public utilities are, for the most part, controlled by the local authorities. The Wiener Stadtwerke – public transportation services (Wiener Linien), electric power stations (Wienstrom), gas works (Wiengas), municipal funeral service (Bestattung Wien) – employed 15,118 members of staff in 1995. Consequently, they are amongst Austria’s largest corporations. Wienstrom not only supply the Stadt Wien, but also 110 communities in Lower Austria with electric power. It was in 1902 that the Kraftwerk Simmering provided power for the first time. Today the area covered by the Kraftwerk Simmering holds four generating units with a total power of 973 MW of electrical power at 630 MW use of steam for district heating. The power plants of Kraftwerk Donaustadt and Leopoldau can together generate a maximum power of 480 MW and 170 MW for district heating. By taking extensive environmental measures in the years between 1980 and 1996, pollutants such as nitrogen oxide and sulphur oxide were cut down by 87% and 99% respectively. In addition to caloric power plants, Wienstrom operate their own hydro electric power stations in Gaming and Opponitz and have preemptive rights to electricity from the Kraftwerk Greifenstein and Freudenau. In 1995 the overall power requirement of Vienna constituted 9,385 GWh. About 50% of the energy required is generated in Wienstrom’s own power stations. The remaining 50% is procured by the Verbundgesellschaft. The power supply takes place at various voltage levels. The transmission network uses 380 kV as super grid voltage. The distribution networks use 110 kV, 20 kV or 10 kV and 230 V respectively. In addition to 40 voltage transformation substations, more than 11,000 distribution substations and around 21,000km of cable and aerial lines, there are numerous protective devices en route to provide a safe electric power supply to the ultimate consumer.

In 1996 the use of natural gasoline in Vienna amounted to 2,038 million m3. To safeguard gas supply, the storage possibilities were increased to 725m3 in the same year. Natural gas is acquired from national extraction (Inlandsförderung), from Russia and from Norway. The pipeline network of the Wiener Stadtwerke incorporated about 3,345km and provided for 725,415 gas plants in 1996. Aderklaa built a 15.5km long gas high pressure pipeline for the Dampfkraftwerk Donaustadt (“Ost 2”).

In 1994, the total final energy consumption of the federal capital constituted 31,689.44 GWh. The use of solar energy is supported by investment subsidies.

In 1995, spring water comprised 97% of Viennese drinking water. The rest originated from groundwater coming from internal and external pumping stations, and to a small extent from processed surface water (Wientalwasserleitung) as well as water from storage tanks. The water supply is carried through the 1st (134km) and 2nd (200km) Viennese high spring pipelines, 7 groundwater plants, 14 lifting equipments, 9 plants to increase pressure, 1 processing plant and 11 hydroelectric power plants. The water pipe network is 3,176km long. The 34 water tanks have a total capacity of 1,465,870 m3. In 1995, the annual water consumption amounted to 1.28 million litres.

In 1996, the Viennese sewage network consisted of 2,134,776m of street canal and 5,554,625m of domestic canal. The amount of cleaned wastewater amounted to 198 million m3 (Hauptkläranlage) and 19.9 million m3 (Kläranlage Blumental) respectively.

At the Rautenweg (22nd district) there is a landfill site. The quantity of waste in Vienna in 1995 was 822,000t, 37% of which was collected through waste separation, 54% was thermally disposed of and 9% was deposited.

Vienna’s supply is ensured by multiple markets: 1 cattle market hall, 1 wholesale, 2 detail market halls, 20 open and 2 street markets. The most well known temporary market is the Wiener Christkindlmarkt.

The interwar years saw Vienna become a trend setter in the provision of social services for many European cities. Support consists of financial benefit and community service (domestic help and home nursing, meals on wheels, visiting, family benefits). Furthermore there are several residential and nursing homes, counselling and advisory service facilities, daytime and residential accommodation as well as establishments and workshops for people with special needs. In 1995 there were 3,915 children and adolescents in need and 4,511 children from orphanages who received psychological advice, as well as 1,908 people with special needs who obtained support. The 1,356 children’s homes (1995) were attended by a total of 60,400 children. Because of the high number of senior citizens in Vienna, care for the elderly was being accelerated. In 1995 19,388 senior citizens were cared for every day in 80 residential homes (30 of which were civic) providing 20,233 beds. Furthermore, Vienna has 4 homes for the physically challenged, 13 shelters for the homeless, 2 family homes and 2 womens’ refuges. In 1995 the city spent 23.5 million Shillings on social welfare and building projects (16 % of the total expenditure).

On 21 September 1923, the district council decided on a five-year building project, which envisaged the construction of 25,000 flats financed by tax money to remedy the squalor of the overpopulated area (1910: 92,994 subtenants, 75,473 bed-renting lodgers, 25% of the bedsits were inhabited by between five and ten people). From 1925-1934, around 337 urban apartment complexes were built, containing roughly 64,000 council flats. Residential building activity stagnated between 1934 and 1945 and because of heavy demolition in the Second World War, 86,875 flats were uninhabitable in 1945. 1954 saw the building of the foundation stone for the 100,000th council flat, and by 1958 reconstruction was largely finished. From 1945 to1993 a further 150,000 council flats were erected. In mid-1994 the city was the biggest homeowner in Austria, with more than 220,000 council flats: that is more than a quarter of the entire Viennese housing stock. A generous rehabilitation programme of council flats was started in the mid-1980s. In addition there are, to some extent, public funds for non-profit building unions and the construction of freehold apartments. Between 1950 and 1980 some 300,000 new buildings were erected, primarily in the outskirts of Vienna. From 1980 to 1990, only 6,000 new buildings were placed on the market on annual average.
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Views of Vienna
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